scaffolding supports learning in complex task situations mainly by using prompts or tips to bring learners’ attention to important issues or by decomposing a complex task into a set of main actions or key questions
making thinking visible with the support of visualization-based learning technology is important
visual representations and graphic forms play an important role in representing complex thinking and cognition in flexible ways.
In addition to enabling learners to capture their cognitive process or mental model for deep thinking and self-reflection, there is a need to explore how learners’ performance can be further improved by allowing them to reflect on the gap between their process and that of the expert so as to promote expertise development.
KRM: annotated worked examples, reflect tags.
Effective learning in problem-solving contexts requires the externalization of the implicit mental models that are associated with sequences of actions and the underlying knowledge in complex problem-solving processes
Model-based learning and instruction has two different modes: self-guided and expert (Seel, 2003). In the self-guided mode, students are expected to develop their own mental models with little support or guidance, which is more suitable for well-structured problem solving, or when students have profound knowledge and experience in a given domain. In the expert mode, experts’ mental models are externalized as support and a guide to help students solve complex problems or accomplish learning tasks.